ျမန္မာ့ရုပ္ေသး (Myanmar Marionette)

ျမန္မာ့ရုပ္ေသး

ျမန္မာ့ရုပ္ေသးသည္ ျမန္မာတို႔၏ ထီးနန္းသံုးအႏုပညာရပ္ျဖစ္သည္။ ရုပ္ေသးတစ္ဇာတ္တြင္ ဇာတ္ရုပ္ေပါင္း (၂၈) ရုပ္ရွိ၍ ဗုဒၶဝင္၊ ရာဇဝင္ဇာတ္ကြက္မ်ား၊ ပံုဝတၳဳဇာတ္လမ္းမ်ား ႏွင့္ ေက်းလက္ရိုးရာဇာတ္လမ္းမ်ားကိုကျပၾကသည္။ ရုပ္ေသးဇာတ္တြင္ ရုပ္ေသးႀကိဳးဆြဲ ဆရာ၊ အသံသရုပ္ေဆာင္ႏွင့္ ျမန္မာ့ဆိုင္းဝိုင္းတို႔ပါဝင္သည္။ ေရွးက ျမန္မာ့ရုပ္ေသးသည္ လြတ္လပ္စြာ ေျပာေရးဆိုခြင့္ရွိေသာ အႏုပညာ ရပ္တစ္ခုအျဖစ္လည္း တိုင္းေရးျပည္ေရးတြင္ က႑တစ္ရပ္အျဖစ္ပါဝင္ခဲ့သည္။ တိုင္းျပည္ ကို အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေသာမင္း၊ မိဖုရားႏွင့္ နန္းတြင္း မိသားစု၊ အမႈထမ္းအရာထမ္းတို႔၏ လြဲမွားေသာ လုပ္ရပ္မ်ားႏွင့္ တိုင္းေရး ျပည္ေရးအေျခအေနတို႔ကို ရုပ္ေသးျပဇာတ္တြင္ ထည့္သြင္းကျပ ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ရုပ္ေသးျပဇာတ္မ်ား၏ ေထာက္ျပမႈေၾကာင့္ အမႈေပါင္းမ်ားစြာလည္းေျဖရွင္းႏိုင္ခဲ့သည္ဟု သမိုင္းစာေပမ်ားတြင္ ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ မင္းဝတ္တန္ဆာအျပည့္အစံုႏွင့္ သံဃာ့အေဆာင္အေယာင္ျဖစ္သည့္ သကၤန္းကို ေဖ်ာ္ေျဖေရးတြင္ လူတို႔က ဝတ္ဆင္ ကျပ၍ မရခဲ့ၾကေသာ္လည္း ရုပ္ေသးရုပ္ မ်ားတြင္ ဝတ္ဆင္ကျပခြင့္ရခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ထို႔ေၾကာင့္ သက္ဦးဆံပိုင္ဘုရင္စနစ္ ထြန္းကားခဲ့ ခ်ိန္တြင္ အလြတ္လပ္ဆံုးေသာ အႏုပညာရပ္သည္ ရုပ္ေသးျဖစ္သည္ဟု ဆိုႏိုင္ပါ၏။

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ျမန္မာ့ရုပ္ေသးႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ စဥ့္ကူးမင္းလက္ထက္ ၁၁၃၈ တြင္ သဘဝန္ဦးေသာ္က တီထြင္တင္ဆက္ခဲ့သည္ဟု လည္းေကာင္း၊ ၁၂၀၈ ခု၊ ပုဂံမင္းလက္ထက္တြင္ ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့သည္ဟု၍ လည္းေကာင္း သမိုင္းမွတ္တမ္းအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးရွိခဲ့ရာမွ ရွင္မဟာရ႒သာရေရးသားေသာ ဘူရိဒတ္လကၤာႀကီး (သကၠရာဇ္ ၈၄၆) ႏွင့္ သဝရပ်ိဳ႕ (သကၠရာဇ္ ၈၉၁) တို႔အရ ျမန္မာ့ ရုပ္ေသးသည္ အင္းဝေခတ္ကပင္ စတင္ထြန္းကား ခဲ့သည္ဟု မွတ္ယူရ၏။
ျမန္မာ့ရုပ္ေသးသည္ ပန္းပုအတတ္၊ ေရႊခ်ည္ထိုးအတတ္၊ မွန္စီေရႊခ်အတတ္၊ ပန္းခ်ီအတတ္ ႏွင့္ ႀကိဳးဆင္သည့္ အတတ္ စသျဖင့္ အႏုပညာအတတ္မ်ားစုေပါင္းထားသည့္ ပညာရပ္တစ္ခုလည္း ျဖစ္သည္။ ရုပ္ေသးကရုပ္ေကာင္းတစ္ရုပ္ရရွိရန္ အရုပ္ဆင္သည့္အတတ္ သည္အထူးအေရးပါ၏။ ရုပ္ေသး၏အေလးခ်ိန္ႏွင့္ ႀကိဳးအေနအထားမွန္ပါမွ ပကတိလူကဲ့သို႔ လႈပ္ရွားႏိုင္ေသာ ကရုပ္ေကာင္းတစ္ရုပ္ကို ရရွိသည္။ ရုပ္ေသးရုပ္ထုလုပ္ရာတြင္လည္း ေရွးကပင္ သတ္မွတ္ထားေသာ စည္းကမ္းခ်က္မ်ားရွိ၍ တစ္ရုပ္ႏွင့္တစ္ရုပ္ အသံုးျပဳသည့္ သစ္အမ်ိဳးအစားလည္း ကြဲျပားၾကသည္ဟု စာေပမ်ားတြင္ ေဖာ္ျပသည္။ ရုပ္ေသးပညာရပ္အထြဋ္အထိပ္ေရာက္ခဲ့စဥ္က အပ်ိဳေတာ္ရုပ္တြင္ ႀကိဳးေပါင္း (၆၀) ထက္မနည္းရွိခဲ့၍ ေဇာ္ဂ်ီရုပ္မွာ ကရန္အခက္ခဲဆံုးျဖစ္သည္ဟု ေဖာ္ျပၾက၏။

 

Puppet back

Myanmar Marionette was one of Myanmar royal entertainments. Myanmar marionette theater contains (28) different characters of marionettes and the plays are based on Buddhist fables, historical legends and folktales and other stories.A Burmese marionette troupe contains puppet handlers, vocalist and Myanmar traditional orchestra. Burmese puppetry took part a country’s political role as they did have the freedom of speech when others absolutely didn’t. Puppeteers included the reckless ways and irresponsible manners of King, queens, royal family and other royal servants and the country’s affairs those should be taking action or be solved. Historical accounts say that serval affairs have been reported and solved through the puppetry.

Puppet 20

When human performers were strictly not allowed to dress full regalia of King or the robe of monk, the puppets were allowed to wear and entertain among the public. So we can consider that the puppetry was the most and only entertainment that had the fully freedom at that time of monarchs. Though some historical accounts say that Burmese puppetry was initiated by U Thaw, a minister of Royal Entertainment at the time of Sint Kuu King (1138) or it was at the time of Bagan King (1208), it could be considered that the Burmese puppet started since Innwa era according to the lines and verses found in ‘Buridat’ (846) and ‘Sanvaဲra’ (891), the poetry by Shin Maha Rahtathara. Burmese puppetry is one of the combination arts of curving, embroidering, glass mosaicking, painting and assembling strings. Assembling is the most important part to get a good dancing marionette. It can only be considered as a good dancing marionette when the weight and the assembled strings are balanced and can move like a human body. There are several strict regulations and rules to assemble a puppet and the woods are different according to the characters. There were even not lesser than (60) strings at a ‘Apyo Daw’ (royal maid) when Burmese puppetry was at a top once. And ‘Zaw Gyi’ (Alchemist character) is counted as most difficult puppet to perform.

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